Intergenerational diversity at work: Are they too similar to be different?

  • Inês Sousa
  • Sara Ramos


Intergenerational diversity at work is inevitable. But are generations really that different? Results show that there are more perceived differences between generations regarding work values than actual differences.


›› Burke, R. J. & Ng, E. (2006). The changing nature of work and organizations: Implications
for human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), 86-94.
›› Chand, M. & Tung, R. L. (2014). The aging of the world’s population and its effects on
global business. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 28(4), 409-429. https://doi.
›› Cennamo, L. & Gardner, D. (2008). Generational differences in work values, outcomes
and person–organisation values fit. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(8), 891–906.
›› Cogin, J. (2012). Are generational differences in work values fact or fiction? Multi-country
evidence and implications. The International Journal of Human Resource Management,
23(11), 2268-2294.
›› Comissão Europeia. (2014). The 2015 ageing report: Underlying assumptions and
projection methodologies. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
›› Costanza, D. P., Badger, J. M., Fraser, R. L., Severt, J. B. & Gade, P. A. (2012). Generational
differences in work-related attitudes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology,
27(4), 375-394.
›› DeLong, D.W. (2004). Lost knowledge: Confronting the threat of an aging workforce.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
›› Dose, J. J. (1997). Work values: An integrative framework and illustrative application to
organizational socialization. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,
70(3), 219-240.
›› Inglehart, R. (1977). The silent revolution: Changing values and political styles among
western publics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
›› Instituto Nacional de Estatística [INE]. (2014). Projeções de população residente – 2012-2060.
Lisboa: INE.
›› Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2000). Generation X and the public employee. Public Personnel
Management, 29(1), 55-74.
›› Lester, S. W., Standifer, R. L., Schultz, N. J. & Windsor, J. M. (2012). Actual versus
perceived generational differences at work: An empirical examination. Journal of Leadership
& Organizational Studies, 19(3), 341-354.
›› Lyons, S., Higgins, C. & Duxbury, L. (2010). Work values: Development of a new
three‐dimensional structure based on confirmatory smallest space analysis. Journal of
Organizational Behavior, 31(7), 969-1002.
›› Lyons, S. & Kuron, L. (2014). Generational differences in the workplace: A review of the
evidence and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(S1),
›› Monahan, K. (2013). What do values have to do with it?: An exploration into the moderating
impact of work values on the relationship between leader-member-exchange and work
satisfaction. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 12(1), 95-111.
›› Organização das Nações Unidas [ONU]. (2015). World population ageing. New York:
United Nations.
›› Parry, E. (2014). New perspectives on generational diversity at work: Introduction.
In E. Parry (Ed.), Generational diversity at work: New research perspectives (pp. 1-8).
New York: Routledge.
›› Parry, E. & Urwin, P. (2011). Generational differences in work values: A review of theory
and evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13(1), 79-96. https://doi.
›› Pilcher, J. (1994). Mannheim’s sociology of generations: An undervalued legacy.
The British Journal of Sociology, 45(3), 481-495.
›› Riach, K. (2009). Managing ‘difference’: Understanding age diversity in practice.
Human Resource Management Journal, 19(3), 319-335.
›› Ryan, J. J. (2002). Work values and organizational citizenship behaviors: Values that work
for employees and organizations. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(1), 123-132.
›› Smola, K.W. & Sutton, C.D. (2002). Generational differences: Revisiting generational
work values for the new millennium. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(4), 363-382.
›› Strauss, W. & Howe, N. (1991). Generations: The history of America’s future. New York,
NY: William Morrow.
›› Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of inter-group behavior.
In S. Worchel & L. W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago, IL:
How to Cite
SOUSA, Inês; RAMOS, Sara. Intergenerational diversity at work: Are they too similar to be different?. Superavit, [S.l.], v. 3, p. 31-40, apr. 2018. ISSN 1646-480X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 july 2024. doi: